Concept of Tourism… Tourism is an activity far away from the home for leisure, relaxation, pleasure or recreational purpose during holidays or vacations for learning, research or visiting as a tourist or as a pilgrim.
Today, the concept of tourism has become the latest product of social arrangement all over the world. Tourism has surrounded every area of Interest, process and activity in this modern era. Either you’re going for research to any area or you are visiting the place for pleasure and game, either you are planning to visit a place for business purpose or for the pilgrimage – all come under tourism.
History & Concept of Tourism
Tourism concept started early in the 18th century – end of the seventeenth century. As it is evident from the history that the word “Tourist” was first time used in 1772 and the word “Tourism” was used in 1811. In 1936, League of Nations defined “tourist” for the first time. According to that definition, any person travelling abroad from one country to another for at least twenty-four hours is a “tourist”. But later, in 1945 United Nations in an amendment redefined tourist as “any person who travels abroad and stays there for at least 6 months”. With the passage of time tourism got modifications in its concept. And in the 21st century, tourism has become a large business, industry and the most important economic activity of the world. In today’s century, tourism has got much importance than ever before.
In the early days, only pilgrim tourism was famous. As Romans and Greece travelled to their heritages and the sacred places. While Buddhist sites were mostly the tourist sites for the pilgrims about 2,000 years ago where monks used to travel. Similarly, pilgrims used to travel to Makkah and the sacred places in Jerusalem in Palestine. Pilgrims travel to Makkah is still high in these days and every year millions of pilgrims pack for the Makkah. It was tough to travel in past as all travelling was crossing the long, dry and deadly deserts.
Means only religious sites were the places for the people to travel and this was tourism. But, in modern era tourism has entirely changed and has a vast scope, area and ranges.
But, the tourism of the modern era has entirely got a new shape. Today’s tourism is flourishing with its full zest and zeal. It has got a shape of proper business-oriented and commercially organized set of activity having deep routs in many industries inter-linked with each other.
World Tourism Day
Every year world tourism day is celebrated across the world on the 27th of September. For the first time, the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) celebrated the world tourism day on 27th of September 1980. Since then, it’s celebrated every year on the same date of the month of September.
Types of Tourism
According to the United Nations in 1994, there are three forms of tourism.
Travelling of a person, family, friends, pilgrims or a group of people within the same country for recreational, pleasure or for some research or as pilgrims to a sacred historical place during holidays within the same country is domestic tourism.
2.Inbound Tourism Concept
The arrival of non-resident tourists in a country from their native country is Inbound travelling or inbound tourism. Here, tourists can be from any country but their trips & movements within any country they reach, come under inbound tourism. Tourists move within any country and explore different sites, find adventure, do research, take part in social, religious and cultural activities.
3.Outbound Tourism Concept
Type of tourism in which a tourist or traveller moves the country to country is outbound tourism. Outbound tourism has is the best form of tourism which requires money, energy and solid plans. Because this can be hectic as the tourist has to move on long routes and long distances. Tourist has to book tickets, hotels, and vehicles in the country. so, it demands more expenditures than above tourism types.
Importance or Significance of Tourism
Tourism has got much importance in today’s era. Tourism is not only a way of boosting income and revenue of a country but it has also emerged as a commercial sector to invest and earn. The economy of many countries is directly and indirectly linked with its tourism. The naturally beautiful countries and the countries with some valleys, mountains, rivers, lakes, springs, antiques, cultural sites, pilgrimage sites, and monuments attract a huge number of tourists from all over the world.
Tourism is also the source of a large amount of income for the local economy in the form of food and goods payments. Tourists reaching to any pilgrimage site, historical or foody place enjoy foods of the natives and buy different kind of goods that is a big source of income for the locals. It helps them to earn a livelihood and grow economically which helps locals economy to strengthen.
The service sector of the economy and the hotels & restaurant economy is directly related to tourism. In this way, it creates employment and opportunities for startups.
Following industries of any country are directly and indirectly related to tourism;
Transportation Services: It includes Airlines, Trains, Cruises Ships, and Taxicabs.
Lodging: Lodging encompasses, Hotels & Restaurants, Renting out rooms, Homestays and Hostels, Resorts, etc.
Entertainment Venues: It surrounds industries of Amusement Parks, Casinos, Shopping Malls, Restaurants, theatres, cultural shows, cultural events, and music venues.
Souvenirs: In souvenirs, it comes the industry of bouquets, gifts, garlands, gift cards and presents.
However, on the flip-side, travel and tour industry sometimes causes the delinking force in breaking the relationships between the host and the guest due to misbehaviour. But, overall, tourism has gained much importance and it’s important in real too – it deserves importance!
Concept of the tourism industry
The Industry that facilitates the tourists from their departure to their destination and at their resort of visiting is the tourism industry.
Although, the tourism industry is the most flourishing industry in the world with the collection of much revenue for many countries it causes some damages too.
The industry that includes transport, Places to Stay, Food and drink etc is the tourism Industry. The travel industry is the fastest growing industry in the world. It is, directly and indirectly, related to a lot of businesses and industries of a country to help boost the country’s revenue.
The 5 A’s of Tourism
There are five A’s of tourism are: (1).Accommodation. (2) Accessibility. (3) Activities. (4) Amenities. (5) Attractions.
All the activities associated with the tourism hoteling, hospitality and management services is tourism management.
Tourism Management offers careers as travel guides, travel agents, hotel, restaurants or resort managers. Many Universities are offering diplomas, certifications and degrees in Tourism Management today. Therefore, people are rushing to this industry.
Tourism of Modern Era
In this modern era, tourism has entirely changed from its past value. Today’s tourism is much interesting and enchanting. It’s so wast and surrounds many areas of life which includes enjoyment, leisure, business, fun and much more.
The travelling of tourists to a destination in the form of a group or a trip under some travel agency or tourism professionals’ supervision is mass tourism.
Mass tourism was first time started in the UK (United Kingdom) in mids of 19th century. However, Thomas cook was the first guy and who organized trips of tourists and supervised mass tourism under the umbrella of hin famous company, “Thomas cook & Son”.
Tourism for a particular objective under a domain of some speciality of work is known as Niche tourism.
Niche tourism has emerged as the fast-growing tourism of all forms. It’s because; many people in the world travel to distant and different countries and far of places for some specific objectives. Therefore, these objectives can be to do some research, to study, perform religious activities, and for photography or filmography shootings.
Niche Tourism covers the following:
- Agritourism Tourism
- Slum Tourism
- Sports Tourism
- Textile Tourism
- Virtual Tourism
- War Tourism
- Medical Tourism
- Film Tourism
- Nautical Tourism
- Pop-culture Tourism
- Religious Tourism
- Wellness Tourism
- Wildlife Tourism
- Birth Tourism
- Culinary Tourism
- Cultural Tourism
- Dark tourism(“black tourism” or “grief tourism”)
- Ecotourism Tourism
- Extreme Tourism
- Geotourism Tourism
- Heritage Tourism
- LGBT Tourism
- Sex Tourism
Environmental or Winter Tourism
The form of tourism in which tourists travel seasonally in winter to a specific area or a country to enjoy the natural beauty, skiing, skating and cold weather spread there, is environmental or winter tourism.
For example, many people travel in winter to northern areas of Pakistan, Austria, Andorra, Croatia, Czech, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, France, Bulgaria, Italy, Iceland, Greece, Poland, Latvia, Romania, Turkey, Switzerland, Slovakia, Spain, Chile, Lebanon. New Zealand, Canada, United States, Japan, Argentina, Serbia, South Korea etc.
Travelling to fragile, old, and usually conserved or protected areas with the aim to learn and probe about ecology is ecotourism.
However, the main purpose of ecotourism is to learn and get information about the conserved species and ecology. These trips are mostly organized by the research departments of the universities and the government departments. Therefore, mostly these tours are fully funded. The main goal is to probe the problems in ecology in a specific area and to put the solutions to how ecology can be preserved.
Tourism, related to the filmography or shooting for movies, films, dramas, TV serials and series is movie tourism.
Therefore, In this type of travelling, actors, actresses, producers, cameramen, filmography experts find some specific area in a country according to the script and scene resemblance for the movie, film or drama and travel to that site for recording.
Travelling by the tourists for aiding the unfortunate societies, countries or the people of a specific site for helping them to take away from the miserable condition is voluntourism or volunteer tourism.
Travelling to the countries, areas or sites rich in textile industries, products and services, for experience, practice and to know the process, technicalities of weaving the fabrics is textile tourism.
For Example, Travelling to the manchester of Pakistan, Faisalabad (City famous for textile fabrics) and Jaipur in India for knowing the process of weaving the fabrics comes under textile tourism.
The type of tourism in which tourists travel to some specific area of a country with a poor community to help its poor people and economy is Pro-poor tourism.
For Example, pro-poor travels & tours were practised to help the Tanzanian people under a campaign of mountain-climbing. And also in Louangphabang or Luang Phabang, Laos.
The type of travelling in which tourists travel from one country to the other for getting educational skills and expertise, to learn the knowledge related to culture, technology, etc outside the classrooms is educational tourism.
For Example, many students move to the US, UK, China and Japan for learning technology-related skills and also to study the culture of countries.
The travelling in which tourists move from one country to the other for getting the benefits of medical procedure price differences is medical tourism.
For Example, many people travel to different countries for seeking medical assistance like in dentistry.
Tourism trend with low-cost and high-valued experiences evolved with economical crises is recession tourism.
However, It is a travel trend that emerged with the economic crises in the world. Although, It’s short-lived tourism.
The tourism in which tourists travel to a specific country, city or a region to participate in an event organized by a company, agency or a university is event tourism.
Events are sometimes organized by a company to educate its employers and to learn the updating & latest skills in their particular fields. However, some universities also organize these type of events to boost the love for knowledge in its students.
Moreover, sometimes different cultural festivals are also organized in different countries. Tourists move to participate in these events. This is even travelling.
The active participation of tourists and travellers in the culture of the host community and other creative activities of society through the interactive workshops and informal ways of learning experiences is creative tourism.
Crispin Raymond and Greg Richard gave the name “creative tourism” for the first time. Being a member of Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) served for the European Commission in many projects related to culture and craft tourism. The term used for this was “sustainable tourism”.
Then, “UNESCO” and “Creative Cities Network” picked this “Creative tourism” term.
For Example, Creative tourism has become much popular in countries like the UK, Jamaica, France, Austria Spain, Italy, the Bahamas, New Zealand and South Korea
The type of travelling to a specific site -“dark” sites with some horrific crime scenes, genocidal areas i-e concentration camps or battlegrounds is dark tourism.
For Example, travelling to Jammu & Kashmir disputed territory between India and Pakistan. However, India illegally occupied Kashmir using force which is now an area of genocide – Indian armed forces do genocide there. To travel to Kashmir and capture the crime scenes and record the horrific stories there comes under dark tourism.
The type of tourism in which tourists travel to a country, region, or a particular site to experience its history, people, food, culture, and the weather is experimental tourism.
For example, many tourists are nowadays rushing to Pakistan to experience its beautiful and friendly people, its unique music, culture, food and weather.
The type of travel in which film producers travel to different countries having beautiful places to do filmography and record for their movie is Film tourism.
For Example, many filmmakers travel to Turkish, Paris, Canadian and beautiful hilly areas of Pakistan.
To make the travelling available for the poor and for those who can not afford to stay in pricey hotels, restaurants and can’t afford pricey food during their visit to some places is social tourism.
Or, low-income resourced tourism is social tourism.
Usually, social tourism is funded either by the Mosque, Church, or some organisations which bear the expenditures of staying of the poor and deserving.
In this type, tourists are provided with low-priced hostels, like youth hostels and food is also very affordable.
Also called “Last Chance Tourism” is a form of tourism in which tourists incline and move to those places that are declared as environmentally threatened due to global warming, overpopulation or climate change. This is doom tourism.
For Example, travelling to the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro.
The type of travel in which pilgrims travel to their sacred places to strengthen their faith and to demonstrate devotion is termed as religious tourism.
For Example, Every year millions of Muslim pilgrims keep on visiting the Makkah and Madina in Saudi Arabia. Similarly, Muslims, Christians and Jewish travel to the Bait-ul-Maqdas. Sikhs travel to Nankana Sahib and Kartarpur – the Sikh holy places in Pakistan. Monks travel to KPK of Pakistan and Hindus to their gods’ birthplaces. This is all religious tourism.
The travel, based on DNA testing provided by the media and some history prints is DNA tourism.
DNA tourism or “Heritage travel” or “Ancestry tourism”.
Usually, visitors travel to the sites where their ancestors lived in past or where their relatives reside.
Travelling adventures to space is space tourism. However, only the Russian space agency is providing space tourism service for the tourists who want to visit the space.
In the near future, travelling to space can boom and become a market of billions of dollars. These are expectations according to some reports devised in 2010.
Travelling of players to participate in different types of sports and games events held at different places in different countries like Olympics, Commonwealth Games, rugby, Cricket World Cups and FIFA World Cups.
Specialist travel companies gain official ticket allocation and then sell flight, hotels and excursions tickets by packages to the participants.
Travel to some specific places in some countries to enjoy sex – to fulfil sexual desires for a limited time is sex tourism.
Because some countries allow it to happen and prostitutes serve the tourists charging high amount of money.
Travelling to explore scientific landmarks like laboratories, museums and universities and observations & experiences made by them is science tourism.
Here, mostly students and scientists travel for their interests in scientific studies.
For Example, to study the solar eclipse.
Cultural Tourism Concept
This is the type of travel in which tourists move to a country, region or site after being impressed by their culture and with a mind to incorporate themselves in that culture.
For Example, many tourists travel to Kalash to experience the Kalasha Culture.
Business Tourism Concept
The tour in which businessmen travel to those countries, cities or sites where they think their investment will boom and they will earn many benefits, or experience their business in a specific area is business tourism.
Wellness Tourism Concept
The tourism for promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological and spiritual activities is wellness tourism.
The World Tourism Organization’s statistics
The country with the Highest Tourists Influx
According to reports of the “World Tourism Organization”, in 2018, France is a country with the highest tourists influx. France remained at No.1 international tourist destination with 89 million international tourist arrivals.
The country with the Least Tourists Influx
According to the World Tourism Organization in 2018, Tuvalu is the world’s most isolated country with the least tourists influx.
Tuvalu country has more than 100 tiny Islands in scattered form.
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